To fully understand the features of all types of structural steel, you must understand the different uses of each type of structural steel because each type has different shapes and sizes. Below, World Steel would like to give an overview of the types of steel structures that are widely used in construction.
What is pre-engineered steel frame house?
What is steel structure?
Steel structure is the load-bearing structure used at construction sites made of steel, especially large-scale constructions, designed and constructed entirely of steel. Because of the benefits that steel structure brings to users, it is especially trusted by design engineers in almost all domestic and foreign projects.
Types of Steel Structure Common in Construction
Steel structure is one of the most versatile building materials on the international and domestic market in Vietnam. Engineers have used steel structures to carry out the construction of seemingly impossible architectural monuments, building giant skyscrapers and widening bridges that have existed for hundreds of years.
1. “American Standard Beam (S-Shaped)”
Commonly referred to as an S beam, the American structural steel standard beam has a coil cross section with two parallel flanges, all connected by connecting rods. The flanges on the S-shaped flange beam are relatively narrow. The beam designation provides the creator with information about the width and weight of each unit. For example, S12x50 represents a beam 12 inches deep and weighs 50 pounds per foot.
2. “Angle (L-Shaped)” Steel Structure
The angle beams are L-shaped, with the legs coming together at a 90-degree angle. Corner beams have equal or unequal foot sizes. Example: An equal vacuum L beam can have one pin of 2x2x0.5 and one leg of 6x3x0.5 for example. L-beams are often used in floor systems because of the reduced structural depth.
3. “H Shape” Bearing Piles
When builders can’t find a structure on a shallow foundation, they use load-bearing piles to design a deep foundation system.
The bearing pile is H-shaped to efficiently transfer the load through the pile to the top. Bearing piles work best in dense soils offering the most resistance at the top. Individual piles can bear more than 1,000 tons of weight.
4. “C Shape” Steel Structure
Structural C channels, or C beams, have a C-shaped cross section. The channels have top and bottom flanges, with a rod connecting them. C-shaped beams are cost-effective solutions for short to medium range structures. The cantilever girders were originally designed for bridges, but are popular for use in marine piers and other construction applications.
5. Hollow Steel Section (HSS)
HSS is a metal profile with a hollow tubular cross-section. HSS hollow steel sections can be square, rectangular, circular or elliptical. The HSS beam structure is rounded, with a radius twice the wall thickness. Engineers often use HSS sections in welded steel frames.
6. “I-Beam” Wide Flange (I-Shape)
An I-beam, also known as a spectral beam, has two parallel elements. The flange thickness is not necessarily equal to the connecting rod thickness.
The crossbar is resistant to shear forces, while the transverse flanges resist most beam bending movements. The I-shape is very effective in carrying shear and bending loads in the plane of the connecting rod. The construction industry makes extensive use of I-beams of various sizes.
7. Steel Pipe
Structural steel pipe is important for a wide range of applications in construction, lending strength and stability. Hollow pipes, cylindrical tubes come in many sizes. Engineers often use steel pipes to meet the needs of water, oil and gas industrial projects.
8. “Tee” Steel Structure (T-Shape)
A Tee beam or T-beam: is a load-bearing beam with a T-section. The top part of this cross-section is a flange, with a longitudinal connecting rod underneath. T-beams can withstand heavy loads but the lack of an I-beam bottom flange creates a disadvantage in some applications.
9. Steel Plate
Steel Plate, also known as sheet steel: is a type of steel that is processed in a thin and flat shape with a large size. Often used to build factories and large projects. There are 2 types: Hot Rolled Steel and Cold Rolled Steel.
- Hot Rolled Steel: 4–160 mm thick, 6-12m long, 0.5-3.8m wide, made in sheet and coil shapes
- Thin Hot Rolled and Cold Rolled Steel: 4mm thick in coils
- Wide Hot Rolled Steel: 6-60mm thick, machined flat
10. Custom Shape
Engineers today are not limited to using only the most common shapes. Custom metal fabrication opens the door to an exceptional range of structural steel shapes for any type of project. Using advanced tools and techniques such as jets, lasers and plasma cutting, metal fabricators can sculpt steel into a multitude of shapes for specific customer needs. If you can imagine it, an experienced metalworker can make it.